УДК 378.016:657-089

ОСОБЕННОСТИ УЧЕБНОГО ПРОЦЕССА В УСЛОВИЯХ КРЕДИТНО-МОДУЛЬНОЙ СИСТЕМЕ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ХИРУРГИИ СТУДЕНТАМИ 5-6 КУРСОВ ПО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЯМ “ЛЕЧЕБНОЕ ДЕЛО” И “ПЕДИАТРИЯ”

Гродецкий Валентин Корнелиевич1, Войткевич Нина Ивановна2, Сидорчук Руслан Игоревич3, Хомко Олег Иосифович4, Сидорчук Лариса Петровна5
1Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, г.Черновцы, Украина, кандидат медицинских наук, доцент кафедры хирургии и урологии
2Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, г.Черновцы, Украина, кандидат психологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
3Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, г.Черновцы, Украина, доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры общей хирургии
4Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, г.Черновцы, Украина, кандидат медицинских наук, доцент кафедры общей хирургии
5Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, г.Черновцы, Украина, доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры семейной медицины

Аннотация
Вопрос обеспечения всестороннего высшего образования при подготовке квалифицированных специалистов, как отечественных, так и иностранных, является в настоящее время актуальной задачей высших медицинских учреждений во всем цивилизованном мире.
Образовательный процесс в высшем учебном заведении, где обучаются будущие врачи-специалисты, как известно, весьма специфичен и характеризуется, в первую очередь, его нацеленностью в отношении получения значимых знаний, обеспечением выполнения жизненно важных действий врачей или фельдшеров, чтобы обеспечить и сохранить здоровье людей, чья жизнь зависит от правильного и своевременного деятельности врача, медсестры или фармацевта. Окончательный успех по достижению поставленных задач достигается, когда реализуются все звенья известной педагогической триады "знания-способность-навыки". Высшее образование в XXI веке отличается рядом особенностей и требует определённых изменений его содержания и организации образования. Основной целью клинической кафедры является формирование клинического мышления, накопление теоретических знаний и практических навыков студентов.

Ключевые слова: Болонская декларация, кредитно-модульная система, хирургия.


PECULIARITIES OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS UNDER CONDITIONS OF CREDIT-MODULE SYSTEM WHILE STUDYING SURGERY BY 5-6TH YEAR STUDENTS ON SPECIALTIES "GENERAL MEDICINE" AND "PEDIATRICS"

Grodetskyi Valentin Kornelievich1, Voytkevich Nina Ivanovna2, Sydorchuk Ruslan Igorevich3, Khomko Oleh Yosiphovich4, Sydorchuk Larysa Petrovna5
1Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, PhD in surgery, Associate professor, Department of general surgery and Urology Department
2Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, PhD in psychology, Associate professor
3Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, Professor of surgery, Department of general surgery
4Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, PhD in surgery, Associate professor, Department of general surgery
5Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, Professor of cardiology, Department of Family Medicine

Abstract
The problem to ensure comprehensive higher education while training qualified specialists, both domestic and foreign ones, is nowadays a topical task of higher medical establishments in whole civilized world.
Educational process in higher educational establishment where future medical specialists are trained is known to be rather specific and characterized, first of all, by its purposefulness concerning getting considerable knowledge, ensuring fulfillment of vitally important actions of physicians or doctor’s assistants to provide and maintain the health of people whose life depends on correct and timely activity of a physician, nurse or pharmacist. The final success to get the assigned tasks is achieved when all the links of the well-known pedagogic triad “knowledge-ability-skills” are realized. Higher education of the XXI century differs by a number of peculiarities and requires certain changes of its content and organization of education. The main objective of a clinical department, is to form a clinical thinking, accumulation of theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the students.

Keywords: Bologna declaration, credit-module system, surgery.


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Гродецкий В.К., Войткевич Н.И., Сидорчук Р.И., Хомко О.И., Сидорчук Л.П. Peculiarities of educational process under conditions of credit-module system while studying surgery by 5-6th year students on specialties "general medicine" and "pediatrics" // Современная педагогика. 2014. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://pedagogika.snauka.ru/2014/03/2170 (дата обращения: 01.10.2017).

Introduction.Integration involves all the spheres of life including higher education [1, 1-2; 3, 201-204; 7, 61-65]. Our state has defined the direction to enter international scientific and educational space. Conversion of the educational system is a necessary requirement to join Bologna process [2, 28-37; 4, 68-69].

The system of education as well as culture is a unique thing. It has deep roots in the material and spiritual spheres of the past and present. In every country organization and implementation of the educational system are characterized by their own special features. In connection with this, reformation of higher education according to the principles of Bologna Declaration should always consider and preserve peculiarities of the national system of education [5, 118-122; 8, 2-4]. But together with this, certain unification, standards of requirements, content and quality of education must be defined. The latter is necessary to solve the problem of diploma conversion with the aim to raise the quality and prestige of the European higher school in the world educational space [6, 32-36].

The problem of training of highly qualified specialists does not lose its topicality, especially in the period of great reforms in practical medical care. A strategic aim of the credit-module system, its leading idea is known to be increasing the quality of training of students to ensure the compatibility of education on the labour-market. Such an approach to a new model of organization of educational process requires from the instructor mastering the system of methodological and pedagogical skills, which is especially topical in learning clinical subjects and surgery in particular.

Main part. A question arises: “How to arouse student’s interest, to raise his motivation, to concentrate his efforts on a qualified training?” Every instructor of a higher educational medical establishment faces this problem. A clinical department is not an exception. The lack of knowledge on fundamental subjects of the students is seen practically at once. It requires the necessity to review the previous studied material on theoretical departments. It is done at the expense of the time necessary for mastering a new topic! It is rather complicated for many students because of a large volume of the material and lack of time, and sometimes due to moral-volitional qualities.

The fact that the 5-6th-year students both general physicians and pediatricians continue to study other clinical subjects should be also considered as an important circumstance. In the course of surgery they begin to get acquainted with clinical signs and treatment of surgical diseases. Theoretical knowledge and practical skills obtained by them will serve as the basis for further development of their clinical thinking under conditions of future medical practical work. An unsteady basis excludes creation of a steady superstructure. It is this circumstance that explains the importance of fundamental learning surgery by medical students.

All these tasks are especially important when we work in groups of international students. There are representatives of more than 30 countries of Asia, Africa, America, and Europe getting their education at Bukovinian State Medical University. About 75% of them are Indian citizens. English is the language of instruction. Thus, qualified and effective educational process can be implemented not only in case the instructor knows his subject but professional English as well. Of course, students study the Ukrainian language for 3,5 years. The knowledge of Ukrainian helps them to communicate in their everyday surrounding, patients in the hospitals and polyclinics where students have their practical classes. But instructors are supposed to conduct lectures, seminars, and practical classes in English which is legally stipulated by the University contract concerning the education foreign citizens get. Before starting to work in groups of international students the teachers, instructors, Associate Professors and Professors undergo special testing to estimate their level of English and ability to ensure the educational process in English-speaking groups. 

The use of educational materials compiled in available distance learning systems (for example, MOODLE – Module Oriented Objective Dynamic Learning Environment) makes the situation easier but it does not solve the problem as a whole. A comparatively easy and quick access to the systematized and illustrated materials due to contemporary technical abilities makes the student a little bit lazy. In such situations students are not willing to work creatively and lose their ability to analyze the material given to them. Some of the students do not practically concern themselves with self-education, relying on the possibility to guess the answer of the test or to solve the task by means of technical aids (e.g., cell phones etc.).

This problem, in our opinion, can be solved partially under conditions of changing the tactics of education. The student must not simply retell the information read, but to analyze and compare separate fragments. The student should reconsider and digest the information received, and after that tries to find associations between separate blocks or units working on the solution of a clinical task. Of course, still not every student due to his individual characteristics of intelligence or volitional qualities is able to get the best grade. One should not crave for it. If at the end of a practical class at a clinical department the student gets his “good” adequately estimated and honestly received, the instructor as one of the objects of the educational process, can consider the task fulfilled.   

As to the methodical-educational materials for English-speaking students, the University teaching staff is working in the direction not to “re-invent the wheel”. The students use original classical textbooks and manuals written by world-known authors they have brought from their countries and Ukrainian medical literature translated into English.  MOODLE system contains all the necessary material in all the subjects studied at the University. In addition to that, MOODLE contains data base of tests for the license final state examinations KROK-1 and KROK-2 comprehensive for the 3rd-year and 6th-year students of medical establishments in Ukraine and tests included in professional medical tests required by the Medical Council of India (MCI test). Thus, the students have the opportunity to be trained within the requirements of their country and be ready to take examination there to confirm their diplomas.

Realization of all the tasks set in front of the student, that is acquiring theoretical knowledge, abilities and practical skills, is possible only on the condition of a close interrelation between an instructor and student. Unfortunately, not all the students have a strong motivation to the educational process. Considering this categorical reality, an increasing role of the instructor as an organizer and catalyst of the educational process should be understood. But the following contradiction may occur in this respect. On the one hand, it is the necessity to keep to the commonly accepted methodological standards of education (accurate distribution of the class into the stages – primary, basic and concluding; the use of standard methods of control – questioning, testing, discussing patient’s case histories, solving clinical situational tasks etc.), and on the other hand – the necessity to stimulate the student’s interest to education.

Due to this fact the instructor who is not indifferent to the final result of the educational process has the right for a certain improvisation. For example, he should pay more attention for substitutional tests and tests for succession of actions; students are examined not at the beginning of the class but in the process of checking tests and solving clinical tasks, starting from simple to more complicated ones. To master practical skills better, such as applying transport splints, using various methods to arrest bleedings, detecting blood groups and Rh-factor, catheterization of the urinary bladder, analysis of laboratory and instrumental methods of examination, role games are useful to be suggested.

Every practical class should include the work with a patient. A constant training is necessary for proper examination of the patient by the student and prevention of possible difficulties. The student must not be afraid of the patient! Under such conditions the student gradually learns how to make a correct diagnosis allowing him to choose optimal therapeutic tactics and rely upon a successful solution of the problem.

Conclusions. Thus, when learning surgery is completed the student should be able to:

  •          demonstrate mastering moral-deontological, legal principles of a medical specialist and principles of professional subordination;
  •          give urgent medical aid in case of the most spread surgical diseases;
  •          make differentiation diagnostics, substantiation and making primary diagnosis in case of the most common surgical diseases;
  •          define the tactics of management (principles of surgery and conservative therapy, rehabilitation etc.);
  •          demonstrate abilities to fill in medical documents in the surgical hospital.

Considering all the mentioned above and corresponding to the contemporary requirements of modern life, the main task of a clinical department, is to form a clinical thinking, sufficient volume of theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the student, which are necessary for a contemporary physician.


References
  1. [1, с.1-2]. В затекстовой ссылке: Будапештско-Венская декларация о создании Европейского пространства высшего образования. – 12 марта 2010 г. [на укр. языке].
  2. [2, с.28-37]. В затекстовой ссылке: Высшее образование Украины и Болонский процесс // За ред. В.Г. Кременя. Тернополь, 2004. 325с .[на укр. языке].
  3. [3, с.201-224]. В затекстовой ссылке:  Медицинское образование в Украине. К., 2005, 383 с. [на укр. языке]
  4. [Петрюк Б.В., 68-69].В затекстовой ссылке:  Оптимизация учебного процесса при изучении общей хирургии в условиях кредитно-модульной системы // Петрюк Б.В., Сидорчук Р.И., Хомко О.И., Хомко Б.О. // Современная педагогика. – Январь 2014. – № 1 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://pedagogika.snauka.ru/2014/01/2050.
  5. [Пидаев А.В., с.118-122]. В затекстовой ссылке: Пидаев А.В., Передерий В.Г. Болонский процесс в Европе. К., 2004. 247 с.
  6. [6, с.32-36]. В затекстовой ссылке: SorbonneJointDeclaration. Jointdeclaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European higher education system // Paris, the Sorbonne, May 25, 1998.
  7. [7, с.61-65]. В затекстовой ссылке: The framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area // Bergen, April 28, 2010.
  8. [8, с.2-4]. В затекстовой ссылке: ”Putin signs law on two-tier higher education system-1″ // RIA Novosti, October 25, 2007.


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