УДК 1751

ПРОБЛЕМНОЕ ОБУЧЕНИЕ НА УРОКАХ ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА – ПУТЬ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ ТВОРЧЕСКОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ И ПОЗНАВАТЕЛЬНЫХ ИНТЕРЕСОВ ЛИЧНОСТИ

Иманбаева Жанара Кадырбаевна
Колледж Казахской академии транспорта и коммуникаций имени М. Тынышпаева, город Астана

Аннотация
В статье выражена важность современного образования — проблемное обучение. Его реализация эффективна с использованием различных методов преподавания английского языка. Средствами методики выступают деловые игры, ролики и другие виды. Определены методы проблемного обучения. Представлены различные разъяснения по проблемным обучения.

Ключевые слова: проблемное обучение, творческая активность


PROBLEM TEACHING AT LESSONS OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE – WAY OF FORMATION OF CREATIVE ACTIVITY AND INFORMATIVE INTERESTS OF THE PERSONALITY

Imanbaeva Zhanara Kadyrbaevna
Kazakh transport college, Astana city

Abstract
The article is about specificity of the modern education — problem teaching. Using different methods of teaching is effective. The information technologies are the methods of problem teaching. Methods of problem teaching are defined. Different explanation on problem teaching are offered.

Keywords: lessons of a foreign language, problem teaching


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Иманбаева Ж.К. Problem teaching at lessons of a foreign language – way of formation of creative activity and informative interests of the personality // Современная педагогика. 2014. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://pedagogika.snauka.ru/2014/05/2318 (дата обращения: 04.10.2017).

The basis of problem teaching is made by set of the interconnected methods and the means providing possibilities of creative participation of new knowledge trained in the course of assimilation, formation at school students of ability flexibly to be guided and adapt in constantly changing life situations, independently to acquire missing knowledge for self-realization.

So, problem teaching is system of methods of training at which pupils gain knowledge not by learning and their storing in finished form, and as a result of cogitative work on the solution of problems and the problem tasks constructed on the maintenance of the studied material.

The well-known idea is the basis for this concept about development of the personality on the basis of aspiration formation to the self-improvement, belonging to the outstanding Russian thinker A.A.Ukhtomsky.  And the way of achievement of the purpose is chosen through formation at children of installations on self-education, self-education, self-control according to G.K.Selevko.  The ideas used in work belong to activity and personally focused training which are propagandized in works E.S Polat, E.I Passova. [1, p76]

Any problem originates in a problem situation: having realized the arisen difficulty as insoluble at this level of knowledge, the pupil like desire to find a way out of the created situation by means of thinking, i.e. to accept a problem to the decision. From this point the problem turns for it into the task demanding cogitative activity as the pupil knows for what to speak about what to speak and it isn’t known how it is necessary to formulate the thought, what means of communication should be used.

Categories of problem teaching.

The problem situation represents informative difficulty for which overcoming trainees have to acquire new knowledge or make intellectual efforts. Problem situations can be objective (the situation is set by the teacher) and subjective (a psychological state of intellectual difficulty at the solution of the put problem).

The problem situation realized and accepted by the trainee to the decision, develops into a problem. The problem with the indication of parameters and conditions of the decision represents a problem task

Problem. (from Greek ргоblem – a task, a task). This understanding by pupils of impossibility to allow difficulties and the contradictions, met to it on occupation in this situation, by means of knowledge available for it and experience.

Problem task. It is an educational problem with the set conditions and, owing to this fact the turned-out limited field of search available to the decision to pupils. Set of such purposefully designed tasks also is urged to provide the main functions of problem training: creative mastering training material and assimilation of experience of creative activity.[2, p.112]

Problem teaching  allows:

- to consider specific features of each pupil in a class “Problem teaching  at lessons of a foreign language – way of formation of creative activity and informative interests of the personality”

The basis of problem teaching is made by set of the interconnected methods and the means providing possibilities of creative participation of new knowledge trained in the course of assimilation, formation at school students of ability flexibly to be guided and adapt in constantly changing life situations, independently to acquire missing knowledge for self-realization.

So, problem training is system of methods of training at which pupils gain knowledge not by learning and their storing in finished form, and as a result of cogitative work on the solution of problems and the problem tasks constructed on the maintenance of the studied material.

The well-known idea is the basis for this concept about development of the personality on the basis of aspiration formation to the self-improvement, belonging to the outstanding Russian thinker A.A.Ukhtomsky.  And the way of achievement of the purpose is chosen through formation at children of installations on self-education, self-education, self-control according to G.K.Selevko.  The ideas used in work belong to deyatelnostno and personally focused training which are propagandized in works E.S Polat, E.I Passova. [3, p89]

Any problem originates in a problem situation: having realized the arisen difficulty as unsoluble at this level of knowledge, the pupil like desire to find a way out of the created situation by means of thinking, i.e. to accept a problem to the decision. From this point the problem turns for it into the task demanding cogitative activity as the pupil knows for what to speak about what to speak and it isn’t known how it is necessary to formulate the thought, what means of communication should be used.[4, p9]

Categories of problem training.

The problem situation represents informative difficulty for which overcoming trainees have to acquire new knowledge or make intellectual efforts. Problem situations can be objective (the situation is set by the teacher) and subjective (a psychological state of intellectual difficulty at the solution of the put problem).

The problem situation realized and accepted by the trainee to the decision, develops into a problem. The problem with the indication of parameters and conditions of the decision represents a problem task

Problem. (from Greek ргоblema – a task, a task). This understanding by pupils of impossibility to allow difficulties and the contradictions, met to it on occupation in this situation, by means of knowledge available for it and experience.

Problem task. It is an educational problem with the set conditions and, owing to this fact the turned-out limited field of search available to the decision to pupils. Set of such purposefully designed tasks also is urged to provide the main functions of problem training: creative mastering training material and assimilation of experience of creative activity.

Problem teaching allows:

  • to consider specific features of each pupil in a class
    • to create for weak pupils of a situation of success by means of attraction them in discussion as far as possible;
    • to construct systems of the measures inducing pupils to reflect and make own discoveries, to carry out mini-researches;
    • to promote development of skill of independent work with educational, reference books, it is expedient to use information technologies;
    • to teach the pupil to correlate theoretical knowledge to life situations;

So, problem training at lessons at of  foreign  language helps to find the most effective ways and ways of reorganization of reproductive thinking on productive, creative.

In my opinion, by means of problem training at lessons of foreign language  it is possible

  • to reveal individual bents of each pupil;
  • to learn to observe, investigate, stir up cogitative activity since there are no ready answers to questions in one textbook;
  • to learn to listen and hear each other, to respect opinion of the interlocutor;
  • to learn to live by the principle: “I don’t agree – object, you object – offer, you offer – act”;
  • to interest pupils in world around knowledge;
  • to change a role of the teacher (the teacher – not the controller, and the mentor, the adviser, information source which shares shared responsibility for result) [9]

For the successful solution of training, developing, educational problems of problem training of school students on occupations the following conditions are provided:

  • creation of the informative difficulties corresponding to mental abilities of pupils;
  • providing school students with set of knowledge of the subject maintenance of a problem situation;
  • compliance to specific features, compliance to age interests of pupils. 

The purposes of problem teaching – formation at school students of ability flexibly to be guided to adapt in constantly changing life situations, independently to acquire missing knowledge for self-realization.

For achievement of desirable result the following tasks follow from a goal:

  • The training
    • formation of educational skills of work
    • formation of the communicative abilities necessary for communication in educational and labor, social and sociocultural spheres
    • knowledge of achievements of national and universal values

The developing ability development independently to find and use necessary information on:

  • development of skills of mutually control and self-checking
  • development of etiquette norms (speech step and behavior)

The educational improvement of moral qualities of the personality (humanity, patriotism, mutual aid tolerance, cooperation):

  • development of language, ethnic and racial tolerance, respect for other cultures
  • acquaintance with culture a camp of learned language and their communications with world culture

Advantage of the analysis of concrete subjects and situations is that on occupations.

I have unique opportunity to create the concrete problem situations taken from school, household or family practice. Pupils with special enthusiasm participate in the analysis of a situation and make optimum decisions as subjects are very close and clear and consequently are interesting and actual.

For realization of a main objective of the concept and tasks following from it I use active methods and forms of education which are aimed mainly at the development of independent creative thinking.

Here two forms of work with pupils prevail, namely:  individual and group as I consider that for this purpose there are objective reasons of the psychological plan.

One love and can think, others can’t or don’t want, but are ready to do everything that to them will tell.  Association of pupils in groups on abilities promotes in the course of the general work to self-training of everyone, development of feeling of mutual aid and responsibility for the general result.  But there are also minuses, namely:  certain pupils in group not absolutely honestly perform the charged tasks, thereby reducing a collaboration assessment because of what sometimes there are friction, mutual recriminations, etc.

As the general development of school students is in a formation stage, problem training can be considered as creativity educational.

Formation at school students of operational abilities of the solution of problem tasks is made on algorithm:

  1. situation analysis,
  2. problem identification,
  3. formulation of a problem and
  4. implementation of search of its optimum decision.

 The joint solution of a task the teacher and pupils are also peculiar steps which there have to pass pupils before they will learn to solve problem problems independently. 

1st level. I analyze a problem situation, I reveal a problem, I formulate a task and I direct solutions trained for independent search;

2nd level. Difference consists that I together with pupils analyze a situation and I bring them to a problem, and they independently formulate a task and solve it;

3rd level (highest). I bring to pupils the maintenance of a problem situation, its analysis, problem identification, the formulation of a task and a choice of the optimum decision trainees carry out independently. 

 In the solution of training and developing problems of problem training the central link is the problem situation. At a lesson I try

  • to create problem situations on a real vital material, as on historical, described in literature, and on the modern.
  • to direct problem situations on stimulation of thinking which isn’t end in itself as the purpose in all cases formation at school students of the communicative abilities necessary for everyday life of knowledge, and abilities to apply them acts.
  • to build a problem situation on a familiar training material which wasn’t analyzed earlier. 

Problem teaching  is used both at a stage of introduction of a training material, and at a stage of its fixing in the course of speech practice at different grade levels of school students, both on traditional, and at non-standard lessons.

Thus, problem training at lessons of foreign language  supplements traditional illustrative and explanatory training of school students. At the same time it promotes destruction of old stereotypes of passive training, force pupils to think, look for in cooperation answers to difficult vital questions.

Educational thematic discussion

At discussion of theoretical and practical problems I usually use a discussion method for an exchange of experience between pupils, for specification and coordination of positions of all participants of discussion, for elaboration of uniform approach to the analysis of a certain phenomenon, etc.

Business game

For increase of interest of pupils to studying of language, their activity and a practical orientation in studying of theoretical problems I use the classes given in the form of business game. 

Business games change a habitual situation on occupations, develop creative abilities, form practical skills and abilities necessary for formation of abilities to adapt in changing vital realities, create conditions for self-realization of the personality.

Method of “a round table”

At “a round table” I recognize a collective exchange of opinions, joint search of truth as one of effective methods of training at the senior grade level for realization of tasks of this concept. When carrying out “a round table” I plan action so that all present participated. Otherwise it will be not a round table, and evening of questions and answers. I try to create the confidential, benevolent atmosphere on occupation.

Problem teaching at lessons of foreign language creates the atmosphere of easy communication where my role as teachers changes. Especially brightly it can be observed in work on the project. I take active part in design activity as the assistant, the adviser, information source, sharing shared responsibility for result.

 Problem teaching at lessons of foreign language has the practical importance in formation of the personality since pupils discuss the problems connected with history and geography, literature and music, ecology and biology.

Use of information technologies at lessons creates unique possibility of creation of the natural language environment during the work on the project for independent information search, for enrichment of a lexicon, grammar check.  Thus, problem teaching teaches children to get knowledge independently.

In summary it should be noted that problem teaching stimulates personal activity of pupils, and it provides the active relation to knowledge, persistence of pupils, and, certainly positive result in training and education. Pupils become more sociable, are able to prove the point of view, find the way of expression of thoughts and feelings.  


References
  1. Skalkin V. L. Communicative exercises in English. – M, 2003.
  2. Stronin M.F.Obuchayushchiye of game at an English lesson. – M., 2004 .
  3. Titova I.M. Metodika of training in foreign languages at high school. Modernization of the general education. – SPb., 2005 .
  4. Tsetlin V. S. Real situations of communication at a lesson. / Foreign languages in school / No. 3, 2000.
  5. Skalkin V. L. Communicative exercises in English. – M, 2003.
  6. Stronin M.F.Obuchayushchiye of game at an English lesson. – M., 2004 .
  7. Titova I.M. Metodika of training in foreign languages at high school. Modernization of the general education. – SPb., 2005 .
  8. Tsetlin V. S. Real situations of communication at a lesson. / Foreign languages in school / No. 3, 2000.


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